Best Tech Stack for Web App Development
03 Oct

Best Tech Stack for Web App Development

Mahipal Nehra

With the right tech stack, one can create an interactive UI and a secure, scalable, maintainable, and stable product to reach more customers and take your business to the next level. So, it won’t be wrong to say that the technology used in software application development plays a significant role in its performance and success.

In this blog, we will learn everything about tech stack to help you make an insightful decision by highlighting some essential aspects to consider for web app development.

Without further ado, let’s get started!

What is Tech Stack?

A stack is an arrangement of “things” kept in order on top of each other. So, a technology stack is a set of different technologies stacked together to develop an application.

In other words, a technology stack (tech stack), also called a solution stack, is the combination of technologies developers use to develop, deploy, and run an application. A tech stack summarizes the tools, programming languages, databases, or frameworks a developer needs to design, develop, and run a web application.

Read: Choosing a technology stack for web application development

As every company has unique goals, challenges, and offerings, there’s no one-fit-all tech stack that can be used. Besides, the choice of tech stack highly depends on the speed, scalability, or throughput your application must provide.

Moreover, a modern tech stack has many more components due to the vast amount of event data processing and the surge in the number of devices used by customers to access the applications.

Tech stacks include two parts: client-side (Frontend) and server-side (Backend), where each of these differs product-to-product basis.

Frontend Technologies Stack

The front end is the part that is visible to the users and represents the look and feel of the web app. A lot goes into developing the frontend or client side of the application. Frontend stacks are the technologies used by developers to build functionalities and features through which users can interact and engage with the web app.

Read: Top 15 Frontend Development Tools

Some of the popular tech stacks used for frontend development include

  • Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML): HTML is the standard markup language used to describe and create web pages that consist of a series of elements that tell the browser to display the content. These elements are the building blocks of HTML that label content as “this is a title”, “this is a heading”, “this is an image”, “this is a paragraph”, etc.

  • Cascading Style Sheet (CSS): CSS is used to describe the presentation of a web page written in HTML. It separates content and presentation of the web page that includes fonts, and colors that improve the accessibility of content while at the same time offering more control and flexibility in characteristics of presentation. Simply put, it beautifies the words, structure, images, functionality, and other features of the web app.

  • JavaScript (JS): HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are the core web technologies. It is an object-oriented, lightweight, full-fledged, interpreted, structured, case-sensitive programming language that allows dynamic interactivity to the HTML components of the web pages. It is mainly used for displaying dialog boxes, pop-up windows, date & time, drop-down menus, and completing client-side validations.

  • Frameworks: Frontend frameworks offer templates and components for languages like JavaScript and CSS to make web page development efficient and faster. Developers can choose from the wide range of frameworks available depending on their requirements and preferences. Some of these frameworks are React.js, Angular, Vue.js, Backbone, and Ember.js for JavaScript; and Bootstrap, TailWind, etc. for CSS.

Backend Technologies Stack

Backend refers to the server side of the software that can’t be seen by users. With backend technologies, developers deal with server logic, databases, rendering dynamic pages, push notifications, and identity verification. In other words, server-side or backend refers to the operations running on the server.

Read: Top Back-end Frameworks for Web Application Development

Moreover, most of the data and operations syntax are backlogged and retrieved from the application backend. The most commonly used backend technologies are:

Backend Programming Languages & Frameworks

These languages and frameworks are used to build functionalities in the server architecture of the web application. Some of the most popular languages and their frameworks are


Java is a class-based, object-oriented, general-purpose, high-level programming language designed to have as minimum implementations as possible and allows developers to write code once and run anywhere regardless of the operating system.

Code written in Java is compiled to bytecode and can run on different platforms through Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It can be used to build applications in almost every field including eCommerce, enterprise, finance, mobile, big data, distributed, desktop, cross-platform, etc.

Some of the frameworks that make working with Java more efficient and faster are Spring, Hibernate, Struts, JavaServer Faces (JSF), Grails, Google Web Toolkit, Blade, Play, DropWizard, and Vaadin.


Python is a general-purpose, high-level, interactive, dynamically-typed, garbage-collected programming language. The design philosophy of Python emphasizes code readability by using indentation significantly. Python also has multi-paradigm support such as object-oriented, structured, and functional programming.

Python aims for a less-cluttered and simple code syntax by embracing the philosophy of “there should be one - and preferably only one - obvious way to do it”. Moreover, Python is designed to be highly extensible through modules instead of building every functionality to its core.

A few frameworks of Python include Flask, Django, Web2Py, Bottle, and CherryPy. Python is majorly used for machine learning, data analytics, task automation, and data visualization.


Ruby is a high-level, interpreted, general-purpose programming language that supports multiple programming paradigms, including functional, object-oriented, imperative, and reflective. Ruby emphasizes simplicity and better productivity in programming.

Just like Python, Ruby is also dynamically-typed and uses garbage collection. It also has duck typing and a just-in-time compilation. Ruby on Rails, Padrino, Camping, Ramaze, and Sinatra are a few frameworks that are used with Ruby.

Ruby is mainly used for developing servers, web scraping, data processing, and crawling.


C++ is a cross-platform, object-oriented, generic, functional, portable, general-purpose programming language that also supports low-level memory manipulation. It is often described as a lightweight abstraction programming language used for creating elegant and efficient abstractions.

Using C++, developers gain more control over system memory and resources. As C++ is an object-oriented programming language, it also provides a clear programming structure and code that can be reused, reducing the app development cost.

C++ can be used to develop operating systems, browsers, data structures, and in-game programming. Some of the C++ generic frameworks and libraries are Apache Portable Runtime (APR), Apache C++ Standard Library, BDE, Boost, Dlib, Cinder, Adobe Source Libraries (ASL), EASTL, Cxxomfort, and Folly.


Hypertext Preprocessor or PHP is an interpreted, open-source, general-purpose, object-oriented, scripting language designed for web development. Using PHP, developers can create dynamic content that interacts with databases.

As a server-side scripting language that can be embedded in HTML, PHP can manage databases, dynamic content, and session tracking. It even creates the complete eCommerce platform. The core characteristics of PHP include efficiency, simplicity, security, familiarity, and flexibility.

Laravel, PHPLib, Pear, Horde, Symfony, FuelPHP, CodeIgniter, Slim, Phalcon, and Zend are some of the popularly used frameworks of PHP.


Scala is a general purpose, statically typed, high-level programming language that combines functional and object-oriented programming paradigms. The static types of Scala help developers in reducing bugs in developing complex applications.

Moreover, the source code of Scala can be compiled into Java bytecode to run on JVM as well as into JavaScript to run in browsers. Scala also entails features like lazy evaluation, currying, pattern matching, and immutability from different functional programming languages such as Haskell, Scheme, and Standard ML.

Some of the frameworks used with Scala are Apache Spark, Scala Slick, Monix, Scalatra, BlueEyes, Lift, and Finch.


A web server is a hardware or software that uses hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) or other protocols to send and receive client requests and results over the web. The core aim of web servers is to show the content of the website through storing, processing, and sending web pages to the users.

Web servers are used to host data of the website, applications, or web applications. A few popular web servers in the industry are

Apache HTTP Server:

The Apache HTTP server is an open-source, cross-platform, free web server software that is maintained by Apache Software Foundation. Almost every server instance of Apache HTTP server runs on Linux distribution, OpenVMS, Unix systems, and Microsoft Windows. It also offers features like authentication schemes, Secure Sockets Layers (SSL), Transport Layer Security (TLS), scalability, file handling, dynamic module loading, reverse proxy, embedded PHP, Lua, and Perl Scripting, and URL rewriting.


Nginx, created by Igor Sysoev, is a free and open-source web server released in 2004, that’s used as a load balancer, reverse proxy, HTTP cache, and mail proxy. Using SCGI, FastCGI, and WSGI, developers can easily deploy Nginx to serve dynamic content on the web. Moreover, to act as a proxy server or serve static content is quite easier to configure. Some of the features Nginx offers include Load Balancing, IPv6 compatibility, reverse proxy, file handling, auto-indexing, TLS/SSL, gRPC support, and over 10,000 connections handling with low memory imprint.


A database is a systematized collection of structured data and information stored in a computer system. Databases support the electronic manipulation of data, making data management easier. Some of the top databases used in a vast number of software applications are:


PostgreSQL or Postgres is an open-source, free, powerful relational database system that complies with SQL and accentuates extensibility. It is popular due to its strong data integrity, architecture, reliability, performance, and feature robustness. It runs on major operating systems and ACID compiled with powerful add-ons like ZomboDB, PostGIS, and TimescaleDB.


Oracle database or Oracle is a multi-model database system that is used to run data warehousing (DW), online transaction processing (OLTP), and hybrid (DW and OLTP) database workloads. Developers can install Oracle databases provided by different service providers such as on-cloud, on-premises, or hybrid cloud.


MySQL is an open-source, widely-used relational database system that is ideal to be used for small or large-scale applications. MySQL works with an operating system and implements a relational database in the storage system of a computer, allows network access, manages users, and helps in testing database integrity while creating backups.


Written in C++, MongoDB is a cross-platform, source-available, document-oriented, NoSQL database system. Developed by MongoDB IncIt is licensed under Server Side Public License (SSPL). It uses JSON-like documents including schemas (optional). MongoDB provides high availability, performance, and scalability and works on the collection and documentation concepts.

Popular Tech Stack

Before we move towards the end of the blog, it is important to know some of the top tech stacks being used in the market you can choose from.

Read: How to choose a technology stack for web application development


The MEAN stack combines JavaScript frameworks with the MongoDB database. MEAN stands for MongoDB (document database), Express.js (Node.js framework), Angular (client-side JS framework), and Node.js (JS web server). Its architecture is designed to make JSON handling and web application development in JavaScript easier. It is


MERN is one of the variations of the MEAN stack, where Angular is replaced with React.js used by developers to develop full-stack web applications using one language. It allows developers to create a three-tier architecture using JSON and JavaScript. MERN is highly suitable for cloud-native, JSON-heavy, and dynamic web application interfaces.


MEVN is also a variation of the MERN stack though it is relatively new in the industry. The frontend technology used in MEVN is VUE.js - an open-source JS framework that is used for developing user interfaces.


LAMP is another tech stack used for web app development. It includes Linux (operating system), Apache (server), MySQL (database), and PHP (programming language) to provide a tried and tested set of technologies to deliver high-performing web applications.

Popular Brands & The Tech Stack Used in Their Platform

To help you understand the usage of the tech stack and make informed decisions, here are some examples of top tech platforms and the technologies they are using currently:

  • Airbnb:



Programming Language

JavaScript, Java, Ruby, CSS


React, Ruby on Rails, SASS

Web Server



MySQL, Redis, Amazon RDS

  • Spotify:



Programming Language

Java, Python, HTML, CSS


Bootstrap, Hub

Web Server



PostgreSQL, Hadoop

  • Uber:



Programming Language

Java, Python, JavaScript, C++


jQuery, Node.js, React, Backbone.js, Apache Thrift

Web Server

NGINX, Apache Mesos


MongoDB, MySQL, Redis, Hadoop, M3, Twemproxy, Cassandra, Riak, PostgreSQL, Schemaless

  • Netflix:



Programming Language

Java, Python, JavaScript, Swift, Kotlin


Node.js, React, Flask, WinJS

Web Server

Amazon EC2, RDS


PostgreSQL, Hadoop, Cassandra, Oracle, Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon RDS

  • Facebook:



Programming Language

PHP, JavaScript, GraphQL, Hack, Python


React, Tornado, Relay, Hydra

Web Server



Cassandra, RocksDB, Beringei, HBase, MySQL, MariaDB

  • Amazon:



Programming Language

Java, JavaScript, Perl


React, AngularJS, Redux


Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, Amazon RDS, Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon RedShift, Amazon EMR, Amazon SimpleDB

Factors Influencing Tech Stack Choice

Now that we understand what we mean by tech stack, let’s understand the factor that impacts the tech stack choice.

A few things to consider before opting tech stack for your project include:

  • Project Size:

The project size directly affects the complexity of the application, making them the main aspect while opting for the right tech stack. For smaller projects, you can go with Python or Node.js. When it comes to medium-sized projects that have more requirements the tech stack will expand a bit more and you might need to choose multiple languages, frameworks, and tools. While large-scale projects like complex marketplace or enterprise applications with sophisticated requirements will need a scalable, robust, and secured technology stack, including HTML, CSS, JS, Java, databases, web server, etc.

  • Security:

Another crucial aspect to look at while choosing a tech stack for your project is its security. That being said, if you are developing an app that handles highly sensitive data, for FinTech, Healthcare, or Government, you need to choose the tech stack with secured architecture to reduce the chances of breaches.

If you want your web application to be easily scalable and maintainable then align your goals with the chosen stack. While considering scalability, you also need to know if you want to scale your application vertically or horizontally. Vertical scaling refers to the possibility of adding new functionalities and features to the web app without disturbing the code's effectiveness, while horizontal scaling refers to improving instances of the platform for a high number of users or making the web app cross-platform compatible.

If there’s a need for upscaling in the future, the chosen stack needs to have a future scope.

Not Sure Which One To Choose? We Are Here To Help!

We hope that the blog has helped you understand the importance of tech stack and which one is ideal for different business platforms. But if you still feel stuck somewhere and can’t decide on the proper tech stack for your unique business needs, then our experts will help you opt for the right technologies.

Moreover, you can also hire developers from us who are highly skilled and experienced in web app development.

So, what are you waiting for? Get in touch with us now!

Posted by Mahipal Nehra | Posted at 03 Oct, 2022 Web